Plasticisers

People have been using plasticisers (US: plasticizers) to make things soft and flexible for thousands of years. Water has been used to soften clay since the early evolution of man and oils are known to have been used centuries ago to plasticise pitch for waterproofing boats.

Modern plasticisers are similar and different at the same time – constituting a wide range of chemistries and molecules bringing high performance in a wide array of applications in a safe and sustainable manner. They are colourless and odourless liquids which cannot be simply treated as additives like pigments or fillers.  Today, over 90 percent of all plasticisers consumed in Europe are employed in flexible PVC applications, largely for the construction, automotive and wire & cable sectors. They are, in fact, major functional substances that transform the physical properties of PVC and other polymers creating a whole new world of flexible and durable finished articles for high performing applications.

Over the last 60 years more than 30,000 different substances have been evaluated for their plasticising properties. Of these, only a small number – approximately 50 - are today in commercial use after meeting the rigorous performance, cost, availability, health and environmental requirements which are imposed by the market, users and regulators. The most common plasticisers include esters such as adipates, azelates, citrates, benzoates, orthophthalates, terephthalates, sebacates, and trimellitates.  They are produced by reacting an alcohol (such as isononanol or 2-propylheptanol) with an acid such as phthalic anhydride, terephthalic acid, adipic acid, trimellitic anhydride to name a few of the common starting materials. Different alcohols and different acids will lead to plasticisers exhibiting different degrees of permanence, performance and compatibility with PVC.

Because plasticisers are so widely used, they have undergone extensive testing for possible health and environmental effects and are amongst the most widely researched of all chemical substances. In Europe, the safe use of plasticisers is enabled by REACH, the most comprehensive product safety regulation anywhere in the world.

Globally, approximately six million tonnes of plasticisers are consumed every year, of which European consumption accounts for over 1.2 million tonnes. Orthophthalates, due to their high degree of compatibility with PVC, are the most widely consumed plasticisers. As can be seen from these figures, major plasticisers are high volume commodity chemicals, which take decades and billions of Euros to achieve full commercial development.

 

In Europe, non-classified high-molecular weight orthophthalates make up for the majority of the plasticisers market followed by terephthalates and cyclohexanoates. However, DEHP still makes for almost 50 percent of the global consumption because it is still widely produced and used in China, India, and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America.

Name:
Acronym:
Category:
Applications:

CategoryNameAcronymCasECProduced by ECPI membersApplicationsClassification CLP
Adipates Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) DEHA

103-23-1

203-090-1

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Cladding and Roofing, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Inks and waxes, Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys

Not class.

Adipates Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) DINA

33703-08-01

291-426-8

yes Adhesives & Sealants, Food packaging - Cling Wrap

Not class.

Adipates Di-isodecyl adipate (DIDA) DIDA

27178-16-1

248-299-9

yes

Not class.

Adipates Di-tridecyl adipate (DTDA) DTDA

16958-92-2

241-029-0

no

Not class.

Adipates Di isobutyl adipate (DIBA) DIBA

141-04-8

205-450-3

no

Not class.

Low MW phthalate bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) DEHP

117-81-7

204-211-0

Repr. 1B

Phosphate ester Tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

78-42-2

201-116-6

no

Not class.

Phosphate ester 2-ethyhexyl diphenyl phosphate

1241-94-7

214-987-2

no

Not class.

Phosphate ester TPP (Triphenyl phosphate) TPP

115-86-6

204-112-2

no Flooring, Wall coverings
Sebacates Dimethyl sebacate (DMS) DMS

106-79-6

203-431-4

no Adhesives & Sealants
Sebacates Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) DOS

122-62-3 

204-558-8

no

Not class.

Sebacates Di-isodecyl Sebacate (DIDS) DIDS

28473-19-0

249-047-0

no

Not class.

Sebacates Dibutyl sebacate (DBS) DBS

109-43-3

203-672-5

no
Terephthalate Di octyl terephthalate (DOTP or DEHTP) DOTP

6422-86-2

229-176-9

yes Flooring, Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys, Medical Applications

Not class.

Terephthalate Di iso Butyl terephthalate (DBT) DBT

1962-75-0

217-803-9

no Adhesives & Sealants

Not class.

Trimellitate Tris-2-ethyhexyl trimellitate

3319-31-1

222-020-0

no Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Medical Applications

Not class.

ESO epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) ESBO

8013-07-8

232-391-0

no Automotive , Food packaging - Cling Wrap

Not class.

ESO epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) ELO

8016-11-3

232-401-3

no

Not class.

Azelates Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) DOZ

103-24-2

203-091-7

no

Not class.

Azelates Di-isodecyl azelate (DIDA) DIDA

28472-97-1

249-044-4

no Automotive , Adhesives & Sealants
Orthophthalate n-Octyl n-decyl phthalate (ODP) ODP

119-07-3

204-295-9

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di(2-Propyl Heptyl) phthalate (DPHP) DPHP

53306-54-0

258-469-4

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diundecyl phthalate (DUP) DUP

3648-20-2

222-884-9

no Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) DINP

28553-12-0

249-079-5

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Inks and waxes

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) DIDP

68515-49-1

271-091-4

yes Flooring, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Inks and waxes

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) DIUP

85507-79-5

287-401-6

yes Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Automotive

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di-n-propyl phthalate (DPP) DPP

131-16-8

205-015-8

no

No harmonised C&L

Orthophthalate Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) DBP

84-74-2

201-557-4

yes Flooring, Automotive , Inks and waxes

Repr. 1B Acute aquatic 1

 

Orthophthalate Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) BCP

84-64-0

201-548-5

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP) DNPP

131-18-0

205-017-9

no

Repr. 1B Aquatic acute 1

Orthophthalate Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) BBP

85-68-7

201‐622‐7

no Flooring

Repr. 1B Aquatic acute 1 Aquatic chronic 1

Orthophthalate Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP) DNHP

84-75-3

201-559-5

no

No harm. C&L RAC opinion: Repr. 1B; H360FD

Orthophthalate Butyl decyl phthalate (BDP) BDP

89-19-0

201-885-8

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di(n-octyl) phthalate (DNOP) DNOP

117-84-0

204-214-7

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisohexyl phthalate (DHP) DHP

146-50-9 

271-093-5

no

RAC opinion: Repr. 1B, H360FD

Orthophthalate Diisoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) DIHP

41451-28-9

276-158-1

no

Repr. 1B

Orthophthalate Diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) DIOP

27554-26-3

248-523-5

no

No harmonised C&L

Orthophthalate Diisotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) DTDP

68515-47-9

271-089-3

yes Cables and wires, Automotive

Not class.

Orthophthalate Ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP) DTDP

119-06-2

204-294-3

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) DMP

131-11-3

205-011-6

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diethyl phthalate (DEP) DEP

84-66-2

201-550-6

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diallyl phthalate (DAP) DAP

131-17-9

205-016-3

no

Acute tox. 4 Aquatic acute 1 Aquatic chronic 1

Orthophthalate Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) DIBP

84-69-5  

201-553-2

yes Automotive , Adhesives & Sealants, Inks and waxes

Repr. 1B

Orthophthalate Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP)

84-61-7

201-545-9

no Flooring, Toys

No harm. C&L Reg.of intention: Repr. 1B; H360FD Skin Sens. 1; H317 

Orthophthalate Di-isotridecyl phthalate

27253-26-5

248-368-3

no
Orthophthalate Di-C16-18 alkyl phthalate

90193-76-3

290-580-3

no Cables and wires
Orthophthalate Benzyl 3-isobutyryloxy-1-isopropyl-2,2-dimethylpropyl phthalate

16883-83-3

240-920-1

no Coated Fabrics
Orthophthalate Benzyl C7-9-branched and linear alkyl phthalate

68515-40-2

271-082-5

no Flooring, Adhesives & Sealants
Ester Alkylsulphonic acid ester with phenol (ASE) ASE

91082-17-6

293-728-5

no Adhesives & Sealants, Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys

No harmonised C&L

Ester TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3pentanediol di-isobutyrate) TXIB

6846-50-0

229-934-9

no Flooring, Adhesives & Sealants, Toys
Ester 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-(1-oxobutoxy)-trihexyl ester (BTHC) BTHC

82469-79-2

413-890-4

no Medical Applications
Ester Pentaerythritol ester of valeric acid

15834-04-5

239-937-7

no Flooring, Automotive , Toys
Ester Isosorbide Diesters

1215036-04-6

700-073-5

no Flooring, Food packaging - Cling Wrap
Ester Hexanedioic acid, polymer with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol, isononyl ester

208945-13-5

no Film and sheet, Food packaging - Cling Wrap
Ester Hexanedioic acid, polymer with 1,2-propanediol, octyl ester

82904-80-1

no Film and sheet, Food packaging - Cling Wrap
Ester 2,2'-ethylenedioxydiethyl-bis-(2-ethylhexanoate)

94-28-0

202-319-2

no Film and sheet
Acetate Hexanedioic acid, polymer with 1,2-propanediol, acetate

55799-38-7

no Film and sheet, Food packaging - Cling Wrap
Citrates acetyl tributyl citrate

77-90-7

201-067-0

no Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys, Medical Applications
Citrates triethyl citrate

77-93-0

201-070-7

no

Not class.

Citrates acetyl triethyl citrate

77-89-4

201-066-5

no

Not class.

Citrates tributyl citrate

77-94-1

201-071-2

no

Not class.

Citrates tri-2-ethylhexyl citrate

7147-34-4

230-457-3

no

Not class.

Cyclohexanoate Di-isononyl cyclohexane dicarboxylate (DINCH) DINCH

166412-78-8

431-890-2

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Film and sheet, Automotive , Adhesives & Sealants, Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys, Medical Applications

Not class.

Glycerol ester Fully acetylated monoglyceride

736150-63-3

451-530-8 

no Food packaging - Cling Wrap, Toys, Medical Applications

Not class.

Benzoate Di-propylene glycol dibenzoate

27138-31-4

248-258-5

yes Flooring

No harmonised C&L

Benzoate Di-ethylene glycol dibenzoate

120-55-8

204-407-6

yes Flooring

Not class.

Benzoate Tri-ethylene glycol dibenzoate

51747-38-7

no
Benzoate Isodecyl Benzoate (IDB) IDB

131298-44-7

421-090-1

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Automotive , Adhesives & Sealants, Inks and waxes

No harmonised C&L

Benzoate Isononyl Benzoate (INB) INB

670241-72-2

447-010-5

yes

Not class.

Benzoate Isononyl Benzoate (INBB) INBB

670241-72-2

447-010-5

yes Flooring, Film and sheet

Not class.