Orthophthalates

Phthalates (pronounced THAL-ates) –covering orthophthalates and terephthalates - are the most commonly used plasticisers (US: plasticizers) in the world. In Europe, about one million tonnes of orthophthalates are produced each year – about 80% of the entire plasticisers market - of which approximately 95% are used to make flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC). They can be found in a range of everyday items including electrical cables, hoses, flooring, wall coverings, coated textiles, luggage, sports equipment, roofing membranes, pool liners, footwear as well as life-saving medical devices such as tubing and blood bags. In addition, some phthalates are used in non-PVC applications such as coatings, rubber products, adhesives and sealants.

Orthophthalates are manufactured by reacting phthalic anhydride with alcohol(s) ranging from methanol and ethanol (C1/C2) up to tridecyl alcohol (C13),.They are broadly divided into two main distinct groups, with very different applications, toxicological properties, classification and legal requirements.  

High molecular weight orthophthalates 

High molecular weight (HMW) or high orthophthalates include those with 7-13 Carbon atoms in their chemical backbone, which gives them increased permanency and durability. The most common types of high orthophthalates include DINP, DIDP, DPHP, DIUP, and DTDP.

High orthophthalates represent about 70% of the European plasticisers market. Risk assessments have shown positive results regarding the safe use of this group of substances. They all have been registered for REACH and do not require any classification for health and environmental effects, nor are they on the Candidate List for Authorisation. High phthalates are not CMR, neither are they considered endocrine disruptors. Precautionary restrictions for toys and childcare articles which can be placed in the mouth exist for DINP and DIDP, based on liver effects at high doses observed in rat studies.

High orthophthalates are commonly used in PVC products such as wire and cables, flooring, truck tarpaulins, wallcoverings, self-adhesive films or labels, synthetic leather, coated fabrics, technical foils, roofing membranes and automotive applications.

Low molecular weight orthophthalates

Low molecular weight (LMW) or low orthophthalates are those with 3-6 carbon atoms in their backbone. The most common low orthophthalates include DEHP, DBP, DIBP and BBP. Low orthophthalates represent about 5% of the European market.

To date, eleven LMW orthophthalates classified as Category 1B reproductive agents have been identified as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) and placed on the REACH Candidate List. Two of them, DEHP,  and DBP, , are currently undergoing Authorisation under REACH, and have been recommended by the ECHA Risk Assessment Committee and Socio-Economic Analysis Committee for Authorisation for specific applications and for specific companies only to supply (three specific companies only to supply DEHP and three other companies for recycling of PVC containing DEHP). If confirmed by the European Commission, this means that after February 2015, DEHP and DBP can be placed on the EU market only for those uses for which an authorisation has been granted to the specific applicants. Only seven applications covering uses of DEHP and DBP have been submitted. Since no applications for BBP and DIBP have been submitted, their use in the EU will be phased out by February 21, 2015.

Low orthophthalates are commonly used in medical devices (DEHP), general purpose PVC applications, adhesives and inks. Use of DEHP in medical applications is regulated by the Medical Devices Directive and not by REACH i.e. there is no need for REACH Authorisation for DEHP in medical applications – it can continue to be used subject to the Medical Devices Directive.

Other orthophthalates

There are other kinds of orthophthalate plasticisers with less than 3 carbon atoms in their backbone (e.g. DMP, DEP,).  They are used in very specific applications not related to PVC at all e.g. household and personal care products. For example, the non-classified orthophthalates, DMP and DEP are the most widely used in cosmetics in the EU. They have not been classified or restricted because they do not pose any risks for our health or the environment. 

Terephthalates

Terephthalates are esters of terephthalic acid e.g 1,4 benzenedicarboxilic acid ester with 2-ethylhexanol known as DEHTP or DOTP which offers low temperature performance, better resistance to soapy water extraction and low volatility. DOTP is an isomer of DEHP. In plastisols, this plasticiser (US: plasticizers) provides lower initial viscosity and better stability but requires higher fusion and processing temperature. Terephthalates exhibit lower levels of compatibility with PVC than orthophthalates limiting their use for the production of durable goods.

CategoryNameAcronymCasECProduced by ECPI membersApplicationsClassification CLP
Orthophthalate n-Octyl n-decyl phthalate (ODP) ODP

119-07-3

204-295-9

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di(2-Propyl Heptyl) phthalate (DPHP) DPHP

53306-54-0

258-469-4

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diundecyl phthalate (DUP) DUP

3648-20-2

222-884-9

no Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) DINP

28553-12-0
68515-48-0

249-079-5
271-090-9

yes Flooring, Wall coverings, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Inks and waxes

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) DIDP

68515-49-1

271-091-4

yes Flooring, Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Film and sheet, Automotive , Tubes & Hoses, Coated Fabrics, Inks and waxes

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) DIUP

85507-79-5

287-401-6

yes Cladding and Roofing, Cables and wires, Automotive

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di-n-propyl phthalate (DPP) DPP

131-16-8

205-015-8

no

No harmonised C&L

Orthophthalate Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) DBP

84-74-2

201-557-4

yes Flooring, Automotive , Inks and waxes

Repr. 1B Acute aquatic 1

 

Orthophthalate Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) BCP

84-64-0

201-548-5

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP) DNPP

131-18-0

205-017-9

no

Repr. 1B Aquatic acute 1

Orthophthalate Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) BBP

85-68-7

201‐622‐7

no Flooring

Repr. 1B Aquatic acute 1 Aquatic chronic 1

Orthophthalate Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP) DNHP

84-75-3

201-559-5

no

No harm. C&L RAC opinion: Repr. 1B; H360FD

Orthophthalate Butyl decyl phthalate (BDP) BDP

89-19-0

201-885-8

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Di(n-octyl) phthalate (DNOP) DNOP

117-84-0

204-214-7

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diisohexyl phthalate (DHP) DHP

146-50-9 

271-093-5

no

RAC opinion: Repr. 1B, H360FD

Orthophthalate Diisoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) DIHP

41451-28-9

276-158-1

no

Repr. 1B

Orthophthalate Diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) DIOP

27554-26-3

248-523-5

no

No harmonised C&L

Orthophthalate Diisotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) DTDP

68515-47-9

271-089-3

yes Cables and wires, Automotive

Not class.

Orthophthalate Ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP) DTDP

119-06-2

204-294-3

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) DMP

131-11-3

205-011-6

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diethyl phthalate (DEP) DEP

84-66-2

201-550-6

no

Not class.

Orthophthalate Diallyl phthalate (DAP) DAP

131-17-9

205-016-3

no

Acute tox. 4 Aquatic acute 1 Aquatic chronic 1

Orthophthalate Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) DIBP

84-69-5  

201-553-2

yes Automotive , Adhesives & Sealants, Inks and waxes

Repr. 1B

Orthophthalate Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) DCHP

84-61-7

201-545-9

no Flooring, Toys

No harm. C&L Reg.of intention: Repr. 1B; H360FD Skin Sens. 1; H317 

Orthophthalate Di-isotridecyl phthalate

27253-26-5

248-368-3

no
Orthophthalate Di-C16-18 alkyl phthalate

90193-76-3

290-580-3

no Cables and wires
Orthophthalate Benzyl 3-isobutyryloxy-1-isopropyl-2,2-dimethylpropyl phthalate

16883-83-3

240-920-1

no Coated Fabrics
Orthophthalate Benzyl C7-9-branched and linear alkyl phthalate

68515-40-2

271-082-5

no Flooring, Adhesives & Sealants
Orthophthalate bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) DEHP

117-81-7

204-211-0

Repr. 1B

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